Ezempilo·Isayensi Yiziphi izifo ezingatholwa nge-electrocardiogram

Isikhathi: 2022-08-11

ECG uhlobo lwephepha elishisayo elaziwa kakhulu. I-ECG ingenza ukuxilongwa okucacile emsuka wokuvuswa kwenhliziyo kanye nomsebenzi wokuqhuba, okungukuthi, i-arrhythmia. , isifo senhliziyo esizalwa naso, ukuphazamiseka kwe-electrolyte nezinye izifo, kunganikeza isisekelo esiqinile sokuxilonga, esixhumene kakhulu neziyalo ezihlukahlukene, ubuchwepheshe bokuhlolwa komtholampilo obuyisisekelo kakhulu.

Uhlelo lokuphathwa kolwazi lwe-ECG, olwaziwa nangokuthi uhlelo lwenethiwekhi ye-ECG. Waqaphela ukugcinwa kwedijithali kwayo yonke idatha ye-ECG yokuqala ngekhompyutha, ukuze idatha ye-ECG yesiguli igcinwe unomphela. Amashadi e-ECG endabuko ayiphepha elishisayo. Ngokuhamba kwesikhathi, amashadi e-ECG aba lufifi futhi angacaci, futhi amakhasi angawodwa alahleka kalula. Ezigulini ezihlolwa i-ECG, imiphumela yokuhlolwa ngakunye igcinwa kukhompyutha, okusiza odokotela ukuqhathanisa imiphumela yokuhlolwa kwe-ECG yeziguli, bathole isimo sesiguli ngesikhathi, futhi benze ukuxilongwa okulungile. Iwadi ngayinye yesibhedlela ifakwe umshini we-ECG. Iziguli ezilalisiwe zingaqedela ukuhlolwa kwe-ECG eceleni kombhede, futhi imiphumela yokuhlolwa idluliselwa ekamelweni le-ECG ngenethiwekhi. , ukuze iziguli zithole ukwelashwa ngesikhathi.


Yiziphi izinto zokuhlola egumbini le-ECG?

1. I-ECG evamile ehamba phambili engu-12

2. 18-lead ECG
Ukugcwalisa i-ECG ehamba phambili engu-18 ngesikhathi esisodwa, uma kuqhathaniswa ne-12-lead, udonga lwangemuva kanye nokuhlolwa kwe-ventricle kwesokudla kwengezwa, ukuze ukunikezwa kwegazi kwenhliziyo kubonakale ngokugcwele, kanye nokutholakala kwesifo senhliziyo, i-myocardial. i-infarction nezinye izifo zingaba ziningi futhi zinembe.

3. I-ECG enamandla
I-Holter, eyaziwa nangokuthi ibhokisi lokugqoka, i-Holter, i-dynamic yamahora angu-24, isetshenziselwa ikakhulukazi ukuqapha i-arrhythmia, i-angina pectoris kanye ne-syncope yesikhashana, kanye nokuhlaziya ngekhwalithi nangokwesilinganiso i-arrhythmia ebanjiwe, ukuqondisa imithi yomtholampilo, kanye nokubheka izidakamizwa Ukusebenza kwe- i-pacemaker ingahlolelwa iziguli ezine-pacemaker.

4. I-Ambulatory blood pressure
I-Ambulatory blood pressure iwubuchwepheshe bokubona obukala ngokuzenzakalelayo, ngezikhathi ezithile, futhi njalo umfutho wegazi ekuphileni kwansuku zonke ngamathuluzi. Ngokuvamile, ikalwa kanye njalo ngesigamu sehora phakathi nosuku kanye kanye ngehora ebusuku, okungase kubonise ngokunembile izinga langempela kanye nokuguquguquka komfutho wegazi wamahora angu-24. Iziguli ezisengozini enkulu zinenzuzo kakhulu.
Imibandela yokuxilonga: Izinkomba ezibaluleke kakhulu nezisetshenziswa kakhulu izinga lomfutho wegazi we-systolic ne-diastolic phakathi nosuku lwamahora angama-24 (umsebenzi wokuvuka) kanye nobusuku (ukulala). Amaphesenti okwehla komfutho wegazi wasebusuku kanye nokukhuphuka komfutho wegazi wasekuseni.
Umfutho wegazi ojwayelekile wamahora angama-24 emini nasebusuku ukhombisa izinga eliphelele lomfutho wegazi otholakala ezigabeni ezahlukene. Umkhawulo ophezulu wereferensi evamile yomfutho wegazi we-ambulatory ngu-24h<130/80mmHg emini<135/85mmHg ebusuku<120/70mmHg.

5. Ukuhlolwa kokuzivocavoca kwepulanga
Ukuhlolwa kokuzivocavoca kwe-treadmill ukukhulisa umthwalo wenhliziyo ngokusebenzisa isilinganiso esithile sokuzivocavoca, nokubheka izinguquko ze-electrocardiogram. Isetshenziselwa ikakhulukazi ukuhlonza ubuhlungu besifuba emitholampilo, ukuxilongwa kwesifo senhliziyo, ukubheka ukusebenza kwezidakamizwa, isiqondiso sokuzivocavoca umzimba wokuvuselela iziguli zenhliziyo, nokuhlolwa ngokomzimba ezimbonini ezikhethekile.

Ukuhlaziywa kokuqukethwe umbiko we-ECG

1. Isigqi se-Sinus
Umkhuzi ojwayelekile wokushaya kwenhliziyo iyinodi ye-sinoatrial, futhi inodi ye-sinus ikhipha imiyalo yokwenza ukushaya kwenhliziyo, okubizwa ngokuthi isigqi se-sinus, ngakho isigqi se-sinus sifana nesigqi senhliziyo esivamile.

2. I-Sinus arrhythmia
Eqinisweni, i-sinus arrhythmia ayisona isifo, kodwa isenzakalo somzimba. Kuvamile ezinganeni nasebancane, futhi kuncipha ngokuya ngeminyaka. Kunezimpawu ezimbalwa zokungaphatheki kahle, azikho ukubaluleka komtholampilo okusobala, futhi ngokuvamile akudingi ukwelashwa okukhethekile.

3. Izigqi ngaphambi kwesikhathi
Ungathuki kuqala, ukubonakala kwamabhithi ngaphambi kwesikhathi kuhlobene nezici eziningi, njengesifo esingesona isifo senhliziyo, ukucindezeleka kwengqondo, izimo zokulala, impendulo yokucindezeleka ngokomzimba, njll. Inani elincane lokushaywa ngaphambi kwesikhathi ngeke libe nemiphumela esobala umzimba, kodwa uma izimpawu zokushaya kwenhliziyo zisobala, ukuqapha kukaHolter kungenziwa ukuze kuhlolwe inani lokushaywa ngaphambi kwesikhathi emahoreni angama-24, futhi kuboniswane nodokotela ukuthi angabhekana kanjani nakho.

4. Okuhlukile kwe-ST-T
Uma ubona izinguquko ze-ST-T ezivame ukuvela embikweni we-ECG, wonke umuntu uzothuthumela kakhulu. Ingabe ngihlushwa yi-myocardial ischemia noma isifo senhliziyo? Eqinisweni, ukungavamile kwe-ST-T kuthinteka yizici eziningi, njengokungasebenzi kahle kwe-autonomic, isifo esingesona senhliziyo, ngakho-ke musa ukukhipha isifo senhliziyo uma uthola umbiko onjalo, udinga ukuthola udokotela wenhliziyo futhi ulalele iseluleko sikadokotela ukuze uhlolwe okwengeziwe.

5. I-electrocardiogram ijwayelekile, ingabe ngidinga ukwenza ezinye izinto zokuhlola?
Yebo, i-echocardiography ibheka ukwakheka kwenhliziyo, i-atrium, ubukhulu bomgodi we-ventricular, ukuvalwa kwe-valve yenhliziyo, nomsebenzi wenhliziyo. I-coronary CT ihlola inhliziyo nge-atherosclerosis kanye ne-stenosis.

6. Ingabe ngidinga ukuzila ukudla nge-ECG?
Asikho isidingo sokuthi uzilile ukuze uthole i-ECG, ungeza noma nini, kodwa khumbuza wonke umuntu ukuthi aye esibhedlela ukuze abonane nodokotela futhi azame ukugqoka izingubo ezilula, ezihlukene ukuze kube lula ukuhlolwa.

Izindaba Zokugcina